NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Collection. Location: Orange, Australia. Photographer: Mr. Shane Lear (image wea00628);
DEFINITIONS OF WHAT IS A NETWORK differ in their wording and focus, but a common theme is that different types of relationships give rise to different types of networks.
So if we measure friendship ties, we have a friendship network, and if we also measure kinship ties among the same people, we have both a friendship network and a kinship network . In the analysis we may choose to combine the networks in various ways, but in reality we have two networks. (Borgatti et al. 2013: 3)
In response to such a statement, all I can say is “Oh, really?” The assumptions embedded in these seemingly straightforward words are fairly typical of how network analysis is commonly defined by experts as a way to study the world and our place in it. They are all questionable.
What, for example, is “friendship” (Terrell 2014)? Is it even possible to have a single and consistent right answer to such a question so that every friendship included in a network of friendships is predicated on the same or at least comparable human feelings, commitments, and acts? Additionally, as social anthropologists know well after many decades of study and debate, don’t even try to see “kinship” as a universally consistent type of human social engagement.
What is a relationship?
Let’s reflect a moment on what I just wrote. Except as an academic exercise, does anyone honestly believe the nuanced relationships that humans have with one another can be usefully seen as a layering of separate networks? So much so, that all of the networks included in any given social network analysis are somehow layered together in a fashion that might be described as some sort of “social sandwich”—to offer an admittedly peculiar simile?
You can probably tell without my having to say so that I want to offer you another way to think about networks and doing network analysis.
Networks are a way of thinking about social systems that focus our attention on the relationships among the entities that make up the system, which we call actors and nodes (Borgatti et al. 2013: 1)
Instead of seeing networks the way most analysts do as systems (Kolaczyk 2009: 2) or structures (Scott 2000: 4), I will show you how it is useful as well as more truthful to describe dynamic network analysis as the study of related events in time and space of differing and variable probability. Importantly, whether the events being analyzed are predictable enough to characterize their co-occurrence as a “system” or “structure” is a matter to be investigated as part of any dynamic network analysis, not something to be assumed at the beginning of study.
Before exploring all this with you, however, I first need to tell you what I mean by the word relationship.
Begin at the beginning
Let’s take things one step at a time. Let’s begin by revisiting what Carlo Rovelli has told us about electrons that got him into trouble with Lisa Randall:
Electrons don’t always exist. They exist when they interact. They materialize in a place when they collide with something else. The “quantum leaps” from one orbit to another constitute their way of being real: an electron is a combination of leaps from one interaction to another.
Lightning fill in the blank
I don’t think it would be stretching the point too far to say lightning can be said to exist or not exist in a similar way. As helpfully described by the National Severe Storms Laboratory:
Lightning is a giant spark of electricity in the atmosphere between clouds, the air, or the ground. In the early stages of development, air acts as an insulator between the positive and negative charges in the cloud and between the cloud and the ground. When the opposite charges build up enough, this insulating capacity of the air breaks down and there is a rapid discharge of electricity that we know as lightning. The flash of lightning temporarily equalizes the charged regions in the atmosphere until the opposite charges build up again.
To the human observer, the potential for a bolt of lightning to occur is only something suspected, something lurking in the background, so to speak, before the actual discharge. But the discharge finally neutralizing the imbalance in positive and negative charges that has been developing on the sly doesn’t take place until the relationship between the positive and negative sides of the imbalance finally materializes with what can often be a spectacular display of nature’s given ways.
Yet the potential for such a dramatic and utterly natural demonstration of light, sound, and at times destructive effect had been there long before this event takes place.
This simple fact raises a basic question. If lightning is the consequence of a growing imbalance between positive and negative electrical charges, say, on “a dark and stormy night,” then what makes this kind of dyadic relationship in nature different from the sorts of relationships that can develop between friends, colleagues, and loved-ones? And what does all this have to do with network analysis?
Despite the old saying, it is a well-known fact that lightning can strike the same place more than once. As one storm enthusiast on the Internet has commented, given enough time, this outcome is actually inevitable. He adds, however—and more to the point I want to make in case you are wondering why on earth I am still talking about lightning—the electrical activity in the storm that produced it may generate another strike as soon as as the imbalance has again grown strong enough. Once this happens, a previously hit location again becomes fair game as a recipient of the next discharge. If this weren’t so, there would be no practical need for installing lightning rods on tall buildings and such like.
Being fair game in a relationship is hardly grounds for claiming as well that the cloud in question has formed some kind of a relationship with the location previously hit. Nor is there any sure way to predict whether the same cloud will strike the same place. Maybe another cloud that same day or sometime in the near or distant future may also strike the same place. But there is no guarantee when, and there will be absolutely no connection—no relationship—between the first responsible storm and the later culprit cloud involved.
So here then is one critical difference between the kind of patterned and (seemingly) repetitive type of dyadic event in nature called a lightning strike and the kind of patterned dyadic relationship that occurs in networks of many types, human and otherwise: a network relationship however materialized is not just dyadic but also repetitive.
Relational data . . . are the contacts, ties and connections, the group attachments and meetings, which relate one agent to another and so cannot be reduced to the properties of the individual agents themselves. Relations are not the properties of agents, but of systems of agents; these relations connect pairs of agents into larger relational systems. (Scott 2000: 3)
What else is involved?
What else does it take to turn a repetitive dyadic relationship between two things, people, or places into a broader network relationship? The easy answer would that there is a lot that can come into play. However, there are at least three critical elements in addition to the requirement that the relationship needs to be repetitive and more than just randomly so. What are they? I like to label them as situational (or circumstantial), contingent, and consequential. Let’s consider each in turn starting with the first.
Situational—It is conventionally said in text books about network analysis that there are two basic kinds of data about this world of ours, attribute data and relational data. The former is said to be information about the properties, qualities, or characteristics of the two entities ( for example, the individuals or groups involved) in the dyadic relationship being analyzed—classically, the sorts of information that can be quantified, classified, and analyzed using the many statistical tests of significance that have long been available and are nowadays fairly easy to run on most computers.
Relational data, on the other hand, is information about the linkages, contacts, and connections (called “edges” or “ties” in network analysis) among the entities (called “nodes” or “vertices”) being studied. All well and good, but as we will be discussing in this blog series, when the entities in particular are individuals and groups of people, for instance, the characteristics of interest in any given study often vary depending on the particulars of the situation—the context—they are dealing with. The relationship between Rapunzel and the prince who courted her in the famous fairy tale, for instance, is situationally quite different from what most lovers must deal with to be with one another.
Contingent—Similarly, when and perhaps even whether a relationship is maintained over the course of time may often be contingent, or dependent, on the situation at any given moment on either, or both, sides of the relationship. For instance, whether you flee from what has been your home and seek refuge elsewhere when faced with an environmental disaster or political turmoil may be contingent on whether you have reason to believe there is someone who will be there at the end of your journey who will take you in and help you survive.
Consequential—Thirdly, relationships may be as seemingly trivial as saying good morning to your neighbor when you go outside to pick up your morning newspaper, but network analysis is a way of pinning down and understanding how relationships can have consequences of real significance, even in instances such as remembering to say hello to a neighbor that most times may seem inconsequential, but not always. It not only takes a community to raise a child, but being on good terms with your neighbors can be highly consequential, for example, when you need to raise a new barn, say, to replace one that burned to the ground after it was struck by lightning.
What about intentional relationships?
When it comes to the analysis of human relationships, there is no doubt whatsoever that more needs to be considered than just the four relational dimensions noted so far: repetitive, situational, contingent, and consequential.
The relationship between a parent and child, for instance, not only exhibits all four of these characteristics, but is also a motivated or intentional relationship, for better or for worse. Moreover, we humans are not the only creatures on Earth capable of forming and maintaining intentional relationships, as anyone who has ever worked with dogs knows well.
Clearly, therefore, there is more to be said about what is a relationship. However, it is now time to begin asking a similarly basic question. What is a network of relationships?
This is the topic of my next blog in this continuing series on dynamic network analysis.
Borgatti, Stephen P., Martin G. Everett, and Jeffrey C. Johnson (2013). Analyzing Social Networks. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Kolaczyk, Eric D. (2009). Statistical Analysis of Network Data: Methods and Models. New York: Springer.
Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. Los Angeles: Sage.
Terrell, John Edward (2014). A Talent for Friendship: Rediscovery of a Remarkable Trait. New York: Oxford.
This is Part 5 of a continuing series of posts on dynamic network analysis. 6. What is a network?
© 2018 John Edward Terrell. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. The statements and opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not constitute official statements or positions of the Editors and others associated with SCIENCE DIALOGUES.